Rust: differences with C++

Rust: differences with C++

In this article, we will explore the main differences between two very powerful and increasingly popular programming languages: C++ and Rust.

The world of programming offers a wide variety of languages, each with unique characteristics that make them suitable for different purposes. In this article, we will explore the main differences between two very powerful and increasingly popular programming languages: C++ and Rust. Both languages have a strong emphasis on performance and security, but use different approaches and concepts to achieve these goals. We will see the peculiarities of each language, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of both.

Background on C++ and Rust

C++ is a programming language that has been around for several decades and is extremely popular due to its versatility and high performance. It has been used extensively in the software industry, video games, operating systems, and many other performance-critical contexts.

Rust, on the other hand, is a relatively younger language, developed by Mozilla Research. It quickly gained a reputation for its focus on data security and thread management. Rust is designed to prevent memory safety issues common in C++ and other languages, such as invalid memory accesses, race conditions, and null pointer dereferences.

Ownership and Borrowing vs. Memory management in C++

One of the key differences between C++ and Rust is memory management. In C++, programmers have to manually manage memory using pointers and proper freeing of resources. This can lead to serious errors such as memory leaks or invalid memory accesses.

Rust, on the other hand, adopts an ownership and borrowing system that prevents the presence of memory leaks or data races. With the concept of "ownership," Rust ensures that only one variable can own a data at a time, thus avoiding the problems of multiple pointers to a single resource. Furthermore, the "borrowing" allows you to temporarily pass control of a variable to other parts of your code without losing ownership, improving efficiency and security.

Trait of Rust vs. C++ classes

Both languages support object-oriented programming, but with different approaches. In C++, classes are fundamental to OOP, while in Rust, we have "traits," which are more like interfaces.

Rust traits allow you to define methods and functionality without providing specific implementations. This promotes greater flexibility and separation of responsibilities than C++ classes. Additionally, Rust traits can be implemented for external types, allowing for greater retroactivity without having to change the original source code.

Competition and security

Managing concurrency is one of the biggest challenges in modern programming. C++ offers threading and multithreading support, but programmers have to manually handle issues like race conditions, which can lead to bugs that are hard to find and fix.

Rust, on the other hand, addresses the problem of compile-time concurrency, thanks to the concept of "ownership" and the borrower checker rules. This allows you to write more secure concurrent code and prevent data races in development, greatly reducing the possibility of concurrency-related bugs.

Compatibility with C and performance

C++ is known for its tight integration with the C language, allowing developers to use existing C libraries and work at a low level when needed. This feature has contributed to the widespread adoption of C++ in the software engineering industry.

On the other hand, Rust also offers good interoperability with C, but is more stringent in its security management. Rust aims to provide C++-like performance but with less risk of programming errors, thanks to its ownership and borrow checker features.


Both C++ and Rust are powerful and versatile languages, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. C++ offers a large code base and a large developer community, but requires more attention to memory safety. Rust, on the other hand, is an excellent choice for projects where security and error prevention are crucial, but it may take more time to learn how to use it fully.

The choice between C++ and Rust will depend on the specific needs of the project and the personal preferences of the developer. Regardless of which language you choose, both offer powerful tools for creating efficient, secure, and high-quality software.